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- ItemArmy Officer Corps Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Foundation Gaps Place Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Operations at Risk - Part 3(Countering WMD Journal, 2023-06) Lagasse, Bryan; Bowers, Patrick; Kick, Andrew R.; Gettings, Matthew; Chin, Jeffrey; Calangi, Nicholas; McMahon, Robert; Burpo, Fred J.This is the third and final article of the series where the authors have outlined potential risks the Army may face in future Joint operations due to the shortage of STEM competencies in the Army Officer Corps. To assess this risk, we utilized the Joint Operational model, Notional Phasing for Predominant Military Activities, from JP 3-0, Joint Operations as the framework. In parts 1 and 2 we described how the current efforts in Phase 0 (Shape) and Phase 1 (Deter) were insufficient to develop the STEM competencies in the Army Officer Corps at large. As the United States Army is not directly engaged in a direct or decisive action conflict, our assumption is that we are currently in Phases 0 and 1. During these phases, the focus is on the ability of military leaders to understand the operational environment and develop competencies in preparation for offensive operations. In this article, we shift to address the potential future conflicts and how the lack of STEM competencies could impact the Army’s ability to win our Nation’s wars. During Phase 2 (Seize the initiative) and Phase 3 (Dominate) the focus for military leaders is on executing offensive operations and the abilities of those leaders to develop an operational plan leading to mission accomplishment. In Phase 4 (Stabilize) and Phase 5 (Enable Civil Authority) the focus shifts to stability operations and the leaders’ abilities to use information to enable local leaders to re-establish authority and control of the operational environment. With the continued introduction of innovative technology, it is critically important that military officers at echelon have foundational STEM competencies in order to effectively integrate the technology into operations.
- ItemArmy Officer Corps Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Foundation Gaps Place Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Operations at Risk – Part 1(Countering WMD Journal, 2021-12) Kick, Andrew R.; Hummel, Stephen G.; Gettings, Matthew; Bowers, Patrick; Burpo, Fred J.This is the first of three articles from the authors describing the risk to Joint Operations incurred by an Army that is vulnerable to the STEM challenges faced in a great power competition involving CWMD operations. In this article, we describe the problem. In articles two and three of the series, we will elaborate on the problem utilizing the Joint Publication 3-0 as our guide and recommend solutions to address this gap.
- ItemArmy Officer Corps Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Foundation Gaps Place Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Operations at Risk – Part 2(Countering WMD Journal, 2022-06) Kick, Andrew R.; Lagasse, Bryan; Hummel, Stephen G.; Gettings, Matthew; Bowers, Patrick; Burpo, Fred J.This is the second of three articles from the authors describing the risk to Joint Operations incurred by an Army that is vulnerable to the STEM challenges faced in a great power competition involving CWMD operations. In Part 1, we described the problem: “The Army’s failure to emphasize STEM competence in the Army officer corps outside of Functional Areas creates risk to mission accomplishment in CWMD multi-domain operations. The Army must prioritize STEM education in accessions and throughout PME to prepare commanders for effective science and technology (S&T) informed decision making within mission command in CWMD multi-domain operations”. For Parts 2 and 3, we utilize the Joint Operational Model, Notional Phasing for Predominant Military Activities, from JP 3-0, Joint Operations, to describe the risk of an Army officer corps lacking STEM dominance for CWMD operations during a regional or great power competition involving CWMD operations. In this article, we address the risk of our current efforts as we operate in Phase 0 (Shape) and Phase 1 (Deter) while our final article (Part 3) will examine the transition to decisive action / unified action with Phase 2 (Seize the Initiative) through Phase 5 (Enable Civil Authority).
- ItemSynthesis and Characterization of Fe and Ag Core/Shell Nanoparticles(2020 SoutheastCon, 2020) Cook, Sarah; Richardson, Lance; Woronowicz, Kamil; Burpo, Fred J.; Duncan, Kate J.This paper presents current results of the synthesis and characterization of Ag/Fe and Fe/Ag core/shell nanoparticles, as well as the future applications of these materials. By manipulating the introduction time of Silver Nitrate into a solution of Sodium Borohydride, Trisodium Citrate, and Iron (II) Sulfate we were able to demonstrate the control of the material that forms the core and shell of the nanomaterial. Different introduction times of Silver Nitrate have yielded different material configurations (Ag/Fe vs Fe/Ag - core/shell).
- ItemSalt-Mediated Au-Cu Nanofoam and Au-Cu-Pd Porous Macrobeam Synthesis(Molecule, 2018) Burpo, Fred J.; Nagelli, Enoch; Morris, Lauren; Woronowicz, Kamil; Mitropoulos, AlexanderMulti-metallic and alloy nanomaterials enable a broad range of catalytic applications with high surface area and tuning reaction specificity through the variation of metal composition. The ability to synthesize these materials as three-dimensional nanostructures enables control of surface area, pore size and mass transfer properties, electronic conductivity, and ultimately device integration. Au-Cu nanomaterials offer tunable optical and catalytic properties at reduced material cost. The synthesis methods for Au-Cu nanostructures, especially three-dimensional materials, has been limited. Here, we present Au-Cu nanofoams and Au-Cu-Pd macrobeams synthesized from salt precursors. Salt precursors formed from the precipitation of square planar ions resulted in short- and long-range ordered crystals that, when reduced in solution, form nanofoams or macrobeams that can be dried or pressed into freestanding monoliths or films. Metal composition was determined with X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nitrogen gas adsorption indicated an Au-Cu nanofoam specific surface area of 19.4 m2/g. Specific capacitance determined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was 46.0 F/g and 52.5 F/g for Au-Cu nanofoams and Au-Cu-Pd macrobeams, respectively. The use of salt precursors is envisioned as a synthesis route to numerous metal and multi-metallic nanostructures for catalytic, energy storage, and sensing applications.